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Analyzed Text

  • the

    the: From Middle English, from Old English þē (“the, that”, demonstrative pronoun), a late variant of (“that, the”). Originally masculine nominative, in Middle English it superseded all previous Old English forms (, sēo, þæt, þā), from Proto-Germanic *sa (“that”), from Proto-Indo-European *só, *to-, *tód (“demonstrative pronoun”). Cognate with West Frisian de, dy (“the, that”), Dutch de, die (“the, that”), Low German de, dat (“the, that”), German der, die, das (“the, that”), Danish den (“the, that”), Swedish den (“the, that”), Icelandic það (“that”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: the

  • be

    be: From Middle English been (“to be”), from Old English bēon (“to be, become”), from Proto-Germanic *beuną (“to be, exist, come to be, become”), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰew- (“to grow, become, come into being, appear”). Cognate with West Frisian binne (“are”), Dutch ben (“am”), Low German bün ("am"), German bin (“am”), Old English būan (“to live, wone”). Irregular forms are inherited from the Old English verb wesan.

    Original page in Wiktionary: be

  • and

    and: From Middle English and, an, from Old English and, ond, end (“and”), from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi, *undi, *unþi (“and, furthermore”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (“facing opposite, near, in front of, before”). Cognate with Scots an (“and”), North Frisian en (“and”), West Frisian en, in (“and”), Low German un (“and”), Dutch en (“and”), German und (“and”), Danish end (“but”), Swedish än (“yet, but”), Icelandic enn (“still, yet”), Albanian edhe (“and”) (dialectal ênde, ênne) , ende (“still, yet, therefore”), Latin ante (“opposite, in front of”), and Ancient Greek ἀντί (antí, “opposite, facing”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: and

  • of

    of: From Middle English of, from Old English of (“of, from”), an unstressed form of af, æf (“from, off, away”), from Proto-Germanic *ab (“from”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epo (“from, off, back”). Cognate with Scots of, af (“off, away”), West Frisian af, ôf (“off, away”), Dutch af (“off, from”), Low German af (“off, from”), German ab (“off, from”), Danish af (“of”), Swedish av (“of”), Icelandic af (“of”), Gothic 𐌰𐍆 (af, “of, from”); and with Latin ab (“of, from, by”). Compare off.

    Original page in Wiktionary: of

  • a

    a: From Middle English and Old English lower case letter a and split of Middle English and Old English lower case letter æ.

    Original page in Wiktionary: a

  • in

    in: From Middle English, from Old English in, from Proto-Germanic *in (whence German in, Dutch in, Danish i), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *en, whence also ultimately Latin in, Irish i, Welsh yn, Ancient Greek ἐν (en) (modern Greek εν (en)), Old Armenian ի (i), Old Church Slavonic vŭ(n)-, Russian в (v), Old Prussian en, Lithuanian į.

    Original page in Wiktionary: in

  • to

    to: From Middle English to (“to”), from Old English (“to”), from Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta (“to”), from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do (“to”). Cognate with Low German to (“to”), Dutch toe (“to”), German zu (“to”), West Frisian ta (“to”). Non-Germanic cognates include Albanian te (“to, at”), tu (“while, for, to”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: to

  • have

    have: From Middle English haven, from Old English habban, hafian (“to have”), from Proto-Germanic *habjaną (“to have”), durative of Proto-Germanic *habjaną (“to lift, take up”), from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂p- (“to take, seize, catch”). Cognate with West Frisian hawwe (“to have”), Dutch hebben (“to have”), Low German hebben, hewwen (“to have”), German haben (“to have”), Danish have (“to have”), Swedish hava (“to have”), Icelandic hafa (“to have”), Latin capiō (“take”, verb), Russian хапать (khapat', “to seize”). More at heave.

    Original page in Wiktionary: have

  • it

    it: From Middle English it, hit ( > English dialectal hit (“it”)), from Old English hit (“it”), from Proto-Germanic *hit (“this, this one”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe-, *ḱey- (“this, here”). Cognate with West Frisian it (“it”), Low German it (“it”), Dutch het (“it”), German es (“it”). More at he.

    Original page in Wiktionary: it

  • I

    I: From Middle English I, ik (also ich), from Old English ih, ic (“I”), from Proto-Germanic *ik, *ek (“I”), from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂ (“I”). Cognate with Scots I, ik, A (“I”), West Frisian ik (“I”), Dutch ik (“I”), Low German ik (“I”), German ich (“I”), Bavarian I (“I”), Danish jeg (“I”), Norwegian jeg, eg (“I”), Norwegian I (“I”) (dialectal), Swedish jag (“I”), Icelandic ég, eg (“I”), Latin ego (“I”), Ancient Greek ἐγώ (egṓ), Russian я (ja, “I”), Lithuanian (“I”). See also ich.

    Original page in Wiktionary: I

  • that

    that: From Old English þæt (neuter relative pronoun, definite article), from Proto-Germanic *þat. Compare Dutch dat, German das.

    Original page in Wiktionary: that

  • for

    for: From Middle English for, from Old English for (“for, on account of, for the sake of, through, because of, owing to, from, by reason of, as to, in order to”), from Proto-Germanic *furi (“for”), from Proto-Indo-European *peri- (“around”). Cognate with West Frisian for, foar (“for”), Dutch voor (“for”), German für (“for”), Danish for (“for”), Swedish för (“for”), Norwegian for (“for”), Icelandic fyrir (“for”), Latin per (“by, through, for, by means of”), Ancient Greek περί (peri, “for, about, toward”), Lithuanian per (“by, through, during”), Sanskrit परि (pári, “over, around”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: for

  • you

    you: From Middle English you, yow, ȝow, (object case of ), from Old English ēow, īow ("you"; dative case of ), from *iwwiz ("you"; dative case of ), Western form of Proto-Germanic *izwiz ("you"; dative case of ), from Proto-Indo-European *yūs (“you (plural)”), *yū́. Cognate with West Frisian jo (“you”), Low German jo (“you”), Dutch jou & u (“you”), Middle High German eu, iu (“you”, obj. pron.), Latin vōs (“you”), Avestan 𐬬𐬋 (vō, “you”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: you

  • he

    he: From Middle English he, from Old English (“he”), from Proto-Germanic *hiz (“this, this one”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe-, *ḱey- (“this, here”). Cognate with Scots he (“he”), North Frisian hi (“he”), Saterland Frisian hie (“he”), West Frisian hy (“he”), Dutch hij (“he”), German Low German he (“he”), Danish han (“he”). Related to here.

    Original page in Wiktionary: he

  • with

    with: From Middle English with, from Old English wiþ (“against, opposite, toward”), a shortened form of wiþer, from Proto-Germanic *wiþr- (“against”), from Proto-Indo-European *wi-tero- (“more apart”); from Proto-Indo-European *wi (“separation”). Cognate with German wider (“against”) and wieder (“again”), Dutch weer (“again”), Danish ved (“by, near, with”), Swedish vid (“by, next to, with”). In Middle English, the word shifted to denote association rather than opposition, displacing Middle English mid (“with”), from Old English mid (“with”), which is cognate to Old-Frisian mith (“with”), Modern Frisian mei (“with”), Old Norse með (“with”), Icelandic með (“with”), Dutch met (“with”) and German mit (“with”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: with

  • on

    on: From Middle English on, from Old English on, an (“on, upon, onto, in, into”), from Proto-Germanic *ana (“on, at”), from Proto-Indo-European *ano-, *nō- (“on”). Cognate with North Frisian a (“on, in”), Dutch aan (“on, at, to”), Low German an (“on, at”), German an (“to, at, on”), Swedish å (“on, at, in”), Faroese á (“on, onto, in, at”), Icelandic á (“on, in”), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana), Ancient Greek ἀνά (aná, “up, upon”), Albanian (“in”); and from the Old Norse combination upp á: Danish , Swedish , Norwegian , see upon.

    Original page in Wiktionary: on

  • do

    do: From Middle English don (“to do”), from Old English dōn (“to do”), from Proto-Germanic *dōną (“to do”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (“to put, place, do, make”). Cognate with Scots dae (“to to”), West Frisian dwaan (“to do”), Dutch doen (“to do”), Low German doon (“to do”), German tun (“to do”), Latin facio (“I do, make”), Ancient Greek τίθημι (títhēmi), Lithuanian dėti (“to put”), Polish dziać (“to happen”), Albanian ndodh (“to happen, occur, to be located”), Russian делать (delatʹ, “to do”), Sanskrit दधाति (dádhāti), Russian деть (detʹ, “to put, to place”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: do

  • say

    say: From Middle English seyen, seien, seggen, &c., from Old English secġan (“to say, speak”), from Proto-Germanic *sagjaną (“to say”), from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ-, *sekʷe-, *skʷē- (“to tell, talk”). Cognate with West Frisian sizze (“to say”), Dutch zeggen (“to say”), German sagen (“to say”), Swedish säga (“to say”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: say

  • this

    this: Middle English, from Old English þis (neuter demonstrative), from North Sea Germanic base *þa-, from Proto-Germanic *þat, from Proto-Indo-European *tód, extended form of demonstrative base *to-; + North Sea Germanic definitive suffix -s, from Proto-Indo-European *só (“this, that”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: this

  • they

    they: The term was borrowed by Middle English (as they, thei) in the 1200s from Old Norse þeir, the nominative plural masculine of the demonstrative , which acted in Old Norse as a plural pronoun. The Norse term derives from Proto-Germanic *þai (“those”), from Proto-Indo-European *to- (“that”). It gradually replaced Old English and hīe (“they”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: they

  • at

    at: From Middle English at, from Old English æt (“at, near, by, toward”), from Proto-Germanic *at (“at, near, to”), from Proto-Indo-European *ád (“near, at”). Cognate with Scots at (“at”), North Frisian äät, äit, et, it (“at”), Danish at (“to”), Faroese at (“at, to, toward”), Norwegian åt (“to”), Swedish åt (“for, toward”), Icelandic (“to, towards”), Gothic 𐌰𐍄 (at, “at”), Latin ad (“to , near”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: at

  • but

    but: From Middle English but, buten, boute, bouten, from Old English būtan (“out of, outside of, off, round about, except, without, all but, but only, besides, in addition to, in spite of, except that, save, but, only, unless, save that, if only, provided that, outside”), equivalent to be- +‎ out. Cognate with Scots but, bot (“outside, without, but”), West Frisian bûten (“outside of, apart from, other than, except, but”), Dutch buiten (“outside”), German Low German buuten, buute (“outside”), Dutch Low Saxon buten (“outside”). Compare bin, about.

    Original page in Wiktionary: but

  • we

    we: From Middle English, from Old English (“we”), from Proto-Germanic *wīz, *wiz (“we”), from Proto-Indo-European *wéy (“we (plural)”). Cognate with Scots wee, we (“we”), North Frisian we (“we”), West Frisian wy (“we”), Low German wi (“we”), Dutch we, wij (“we”), German wir (“we”), Danish, Swedish and Norwegian vi (“we”), Icelandic vér, við (“we”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: we

  • his

    his: From Middle English, from Old English his (“his, its”), from Proto-Germanic *hes (“of this”), genitive of *hiz (“this, this one”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe-, *ḱey- (“this”). Cognate with Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic hans (“his”). More at he.

    Original page in Wiktionary: his

  • from

    from: From Middle English from (“from”), from Old English from, fram (“forward, from”), from Proto-Germanic *fram (“forward, from, away”), from Proto-Indo-European *pr-, *pro-, *perəm-, *prom- (“forth, forward”), from *por- (“forward, through”). Cognate with Old Saxon fram (“from”) and Old High German fram (“from”), Danish frem (“forth, forward”), Danish fra (“from”), Swedish fram (“forth, forward”), Swedish från (“from”), Icelandic fram (“forward, on”), Icelandic frá (“from”), Albanian pre, prej. More at fro.

    Original page in Wiktionary: from

  • not

    not: From Middle English not, nat, variant of noght, naht (“not, nothing”), from Old English *nōht, nāht (“nought, nothing”), short for nōwiht, nāwiht (“nothing”, literally “no thing, no creature”), corresponding to (“no”) + wiht (“thing, creature”). Cognate with Scots nat, naucht (“not”), Saterland Frisian nit (“not”), West Frisian net (“not”), Dutch niet (“not”), German nicht (“not”). Compare nought and aught. More at no, wight.

    Original page in Wiktionary: not

  • by

    by: From Old English (“being near”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: by

  • she

    she: From Middle English sche, hye (“she”), from earlier scho, hyo, ȝho (“she”), a phonetic development of Old English hēo, hīo (“she”), from Proto-Germanic *hijō (“this, this one”), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe-, *ḱey- (“this, here”). Cognate with English dialectal hoo (“she”), Scots scho, shu (“she”), West Frisian hja (“she”), North Frisian (“she”), Danish hun (“she”), Swedish hon (“she”). More at he.

    Original page in Wiktionary: she

  • or

    or: Old English oþþe.

    Original page in Wiktionary: or

  • as

    as: Reduced form of also, from Old English eallswā (“just so”). Cognate with West Frisian as (“as”), Low German as (“as”), Dutch als (“as”), German als (“as”). More at also.

    Original page in Wiktionary: as

  • what

    what: From Middle English what, from Old English hwæt (“what”), from Proto-Germanic *hwat (“what”), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷód (“what”), neuter form of *kʷós (“who”). Cognate with Scots what (“what”), North Frisian wat (“what”), Saterland Frisian wat (“what”), West Frisian wat (“what”), Dutch wat (“what”), Low German wat (“what”), German was (“what”), Danish hvad (“what”), Swedish vad (“what”), Icelandic hvað (“what”), Latin quod (“what, which”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: what

  • go

    go: From Middle English gon, goo, from Old English gān (“to go”), from Proto-Germanic *gāną (“to go”), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰēh₁- (“to leave”). Cognate with Scots ga (“to go”), West Frisian gean (“to go”), Low German gan (“to go”), gahn, Dutch gaan (“to go”), German gehen (“to go”), Swedish (“to go”), Danish (“to go”). Compare also Albanian ngah (“to run, drive, go”), Ancient Greek κιχάνω (kikhánō, “to meet with, arrive at”), Avestan [script?] (zazāmi), Sanskrit जहाति (jáhāti)).

    Original page in Wiktionary: go

  • their

    their: From Middle English, form Old Norse.

    Original page in Wiktionary: their

  • can

    can: From Middle English can (first and third person singular of cunnen, connen "to be able, know how") from Old English can(n), first and third person singular of cunnan (“to know how”), from Proto-Germanic *kunnaną, from Proto-Indo-European, *ǵn̥néh₃-. Compare Dutch kunnen, Low German könen, German können, Danish kunne. More at canny, cunning.

    Original page in Wiktionary: can

  • who

    who: From Old English hwā (dative hwām, genitive hwæs), from Proto-Germanic *hwaz, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷos, *kʷis. Compare West Frisian wa, Dutch wie, German wer.

    Original page in Wiktionary: who

  • get

    get: From Middle English geten, from Old Norse geta, from Proto-Germanic *getaną (compare Old English ġietan, Old High German pi-gezzan 'to uphold', Gothic bi-gitan 'to find, discover'), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰend- 'to seize'. Cognate with Latin prehendo.

    Original page in Wiktionary: get

  • if

    if: From Middle English yif, yef, from Old English ġif, ġef (“if; whether, though”), from Proto-Germanic *jabai (“when, if”), from Proto-Indo-European *e-, *ē- (“then, at that time”). Cognate with Scots gif (“if, whether”), West Frisian oft (“whether”), Dutch of (“or, whether, but”), Middle Low German ef (“if, whether”), German ob (“if, whether”), Icelandic ef, if (“if”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: if

  • would


  • her

    her: From Proto-Germanic *hezōi. Cognate with Dutch haar, Middle Low German er(e) and North Frisian hör.

    Original page in Wiktionary: her

  • all

    all: From Middle English, from Old English eall (“all, every, entire, whole, universal”), from Proto-Germanic *allaz (“all, whole, every”), from Proto-Indo-European *al- (“all”). Cognate with West Frisian al (“all”), Dutch al (“all”), German all (“all”), Swedish all (“all”), Icelandic allur (“all”), Welsh oll (“all”), Irish uile (“all”), Lithuanian aliái (“all, each, every”), Albanian lloj (“type, sort, variegated”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: all

  • my

    my: From Middle English my, apocopated form of min, myn, from Old English mīn (“my, mine”), from Proto-Germanic *mīnaz (“my, mine”, pron.), genitive of Proto-Germanic *ek (“I”). Cognate with West Frisian myn (“my”), Afrikaans my (“my”), Dutch mijn (“my”), German mein (“my”). More at me.

    Original page in Wiktionary: my

  • make

    make: From Middle English maken, from Old English macian (“to make, build, work”), from Proto-Germanic *makōną (“to make, build, work”), from Proto-Indo-European *mag- (“to knead, mix, make”). Cognate with Scots mak (“to make”), Saterland Frisian moakje (“to make”), West Frisian maaikjen (“to make”), meitsje (“to make”), and oanmeitsje (“to act, make”), Dutch maken (“to make”), Dutch Low Saxon maken (“to make”) and German Low German maken (“to make”), and German machen (“to make, do”). Related to match.

    Original page in Wiktionary: make

  • about

    about: From Middle English aboute, abouten, from Old English abūtan,[1] onbūtan, from on (“in, on”) + būtan (“outside of”),[2] from be (“by”) + ūtan (“outside”).[3]

    Original page in Wiktionary: about

  • know

    know: From Middle English knowen, from Old English cnāwan (“to know, perceive, recognise”), from Proto-Germanic *knēaną (“to know”), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (“to know”). Cognate with Scots knaw (“to know, recognise”), Icelandic kná (“to know, know how to, be able”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: know

  • will

    will: From Middle English wille, from Old English willa (“mind, will, determination, purpose, desire, wish, request, joy, delight, pleasure”) (compare verb willian), from Proto-Germanic *wiljô (“desire, will”), from Proto-Indo-European *wel- (“to choose, wish”). Cognate with Dutch wil, German Wille, Swedish vilja. The verb is not always distinguishable from Etymology 2, below.

    Original page in Wiktionary: will

  • up

    up: From Old English upp, from Proto-Germanic *up-.

    Original page in Wiktionary: up

  • one

    one: From Middle English one, oon, on, oan, an, from Old English ān ("one"; same word as ), from Proto-Germanic *ainaz (“one”), from Proto-Indo-European *óynos (“single, one”). Cognate with Scots ae, ane, wan, yin (“one”); North Frisian ån (“one”); Saterland Frisian aan (“one”); West Frisian ien (“one”); Dutch een, één (“one”); German Low German een; German ein, eins (“one”); Swedish en (“one”); Icelandic einn (“one”); Latin unus (“one”) (Old Latin oinos); Russian один (odin).

    Original page in Wiktionary: one

  • time

    time: From Middle English time, tyme, from Old English tīma (“time, period, space of time, season, lifetime, fixed time, favorable time, opportunity”), from Proto-Germanic *tīmô (“time”), from Proto-Indo-European *dī- (“time”). Cognate with Scots tym, tyme (“time”), Alemannic German Zimen, Zīmmän (“time, time of the year, opportune time, opportunity”), Danish time (“stound, hour, lesson”), Swedish timme (“stound, hour”), Norwegian time (“time, stound, hour”), Faroese tími (“hour, lesson, time”), Icelandic tími (“time, season”). See also tide.

    Original page in Wiktionary: time

  • there

    there: From Middle English there, ther, thare, thar, thore, from Old English þēr, þǣr, þār (“there; at that place”), from Proto-Germanic *þar (“at that place; there”), from Proto-Indo-European *tar- (“there”), from demonstrative pronominal base *to- (“the, that”) + adverbial suffix *-r. Cognate with Scots thar, thair (“there”), North Frisian dear, deer, där (“there”), Saterland Frisian deer (“there”), West Frisian dêr (“there”), Dutch daar (“there”), Low German dar (“there”), German da, dar- (“there”), Danish der (“there”), Swedish där (“there”), Icelandic þar (“in that place, there”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: there

  • year

    year: From Middle English yeer, yere, from Old English ġēr, ġēar (“year”), from Proto-Germanic *jērą (“year”), from Proto-Indo-European *yōro-, *yeh₁ro- (“year, spring”), *yeh₁r-. Cognate with Saterland Frisian Jier (“year”), West Frisian jier (“year”), Dutch jaar (“year”), German Jahr (“year”), Swedish år (“year”), Icelandic ári (“year”), Serbo-Croatian jār (“spring”), Ancient Greek ὥρα (hṓra, “year, season”), Avestan 𐬫𐬁𐬭𐬆 (yārə, “year”) and perhaps Albanian herë (“time”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: year

  • so

    so: From Middle English so, swo, from Old English swā (“so, as, the same, such, that”), from Proto-Germanic *swa, *swē (“so”), from Proto-Indo-European *swē, *swō (reflexive pronomial stem). Cognate with Scots sae (“so”), West Frisian sa (“so”), Low German so (“so”), Dutch zo (“so”), German so (“so”), Danish (“so”), Old Latin suad (“so”), Albanian sa (“how much, so, as”), Ancient Greek ὡς (hōs, “as”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: so

  • think

    think: From Middle English thinken, thynken, thenken, thenchen, from Old English þencan (“to meditate, cogitate, consider; think, have in mind; suppose, imagine, hold as an opinion or belief; think of, consider, employ the mind on a subject, reason”), from Proto-Germanic *þankijaną (“to think, suppose, perceive”), from Proto-Indo-European *tong-, *teng- (“to think, feel, know”). Cognate with Scots think, thynk (“to think”), North Frisian teenk, taanke, tanke, tånke (“to think”), Saterland Frisian toanke (“to think”), West Frisian tinke (“to think”), Dutch denken (“to think”), Low German denken (“to think”), dinken, German denken (“to think”), Danish tænke (“to think”), Swedish tänka (“to think”), Norwegian tenke (“to think”), Icelandic þekkja (“to know, recognise, identify, perceive”), Latin tongeō (“know”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: think

  • when

    when: From Middle English when(ne), whan(ne), from Old English hwenne, hwænne, hwonne (“when”), from Proto-Germanic *hwannē (“at what time, when”), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷo-, *kʷi- (“interrogative base”). Cognate with Dutch wanneer (“when”) and wen (“when, if”), Low German wannehr (“when”), wann (“when”) and wenn (“if, when”), German wann (“when”) and wenn (“when, if”), Gothic 𐍈𐌰𐌽 (ƕan, “when, how”), Latin quandō (“when”). More at who.

    Original page in Wiktionary: when

  • which

    which: From Old English hwilc, from Proto-Germanic *hwilīkaz, derived from *hwaz. Cognates include German welcher, Dutch welk and Old Norse hvílíkr.

    Original page in Wiktionary: which

  • them

    them: From Middle English, form Old Norse.

    Original page in Wiktionary: them

  • some

    some: From Middle English some, sum, from Old English sum (“some, a certain one”), from Proto-Germanic *sumaz (“some, a certain one”), from Proto-Indo-European *sem- (“one, whole”). Cognate Scots sum, some (“some”), North Frisian som, sam, säm (“some”), West Frisian sommige, somlike (“some”), Low German sum (“some”), Dutch sommige (“some”), German dialectal summige (“some”), Danish somme (“some”), Swedish somlig (“some”), Norwegian sum, som (“some”), Icelandic sumur (“some”), Gothic 𐍃𐌿𐌼𐍃 (sums, “one, someone”). More at same.

    Original page in Wiktionary: some

  • me

    me: From Middle English me, from Old English (“me”, originally dative, but later also accusative), from Proto-Germanic *miz (“me”), from Proto-Indo-European *(e)me-, *(e)me-n- (“me”). Cognate with Scots me (“me”), North Frisian me (“me”), Dutch me, mij (“me”), German mir (“me”, dative), Icelandic mér (“me”, dative), Latin (“me”), Ancient Greek μέ (mé), ἐμέ (emé, “me”), Sanskrit [script?] (mā), [script?] (mām, “me”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: me

  • people

    people: From Middle English peple, peeple, from Anglo-Norman people, from Old French pueple, peuple, pople (modern French peuple), from Latin populus (“people”), of unknown origin. Probably of non-Indo-European origin, from Etruscan. Gradually ousted native Middle English lede, leed (“people”) (from Old English lēode) - compare modern German Leute (“people”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: people

  • take

    take: From Middle English taken (“to take, lay hold of, grasp, strike”), from Old English tacan (“to grasp, touch”), probably of North Germanic origin, from Old Norse taka (“to touch, take”), from Proto-Germanic *tēkaną (“to touch”), from Proto-Indo-European *deh₁g-, *dh₁g- (“to touch”). Gradually displaced Middle English nimen (“to take”), from Old English niman (“to take”). Cognate with Icelandic taka (“to take”), Danish tage (“to take, seize”), Middle Dutch taken (“to grasp”), Dutch taken (“to take; to grasp”), Middle Low German tacken (“to grasp”). See tackle.

    Original page in Wiktionary: take

  • out

    out: From a combination of Old English ūt (from Proto-Germanic *ūt) and ūte. Cognate with West Frisian út, Dutch uit, German aus, Norwegian/Swedish ut, ute, Danish ud, ude.

    Original page in Wiktionary: out

  • into

    into: Old English intō, equivalent to in +‎ to.

    Original page in Wiktionary: into

  • just

    just: From Middle English juste, from Old French juste, from Latin iustus (“just, lawful, rightful, true, due, proper, moderate”), from ius (“law, right”). Cognate with Dutch & Scottish juist, French juste etc.

    Original page in Wiktionary: just

  • see

    see: From Middle English seen, from Old English sēon (“to see, look, behold, perceive, observe, discern, understand, know”), from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną (“to see”), from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (“to see, notice”). Cognate with West Frisian sjen (“to see”), Dutch zien (“to see”), Low German sehn, German sehen (“to see”), Danish and Swedish se (“to see”), and more distantly with Latin sīgnum (“sign, token”), Albanian shih (“look at, see”) imp. of shoh (“to see”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: see

  • him

    him: From Old English him dative singular of he (masculine) or it (neuter); from Proto-Germanic *himmai (compare Dutch hem).

    Original page in Wiktionary: him

  • your

    your: From Old English ēower, from Proto-Germanic *izweraz. Compare German euer.

    Original page in Wiktionary: your

  • come

    come: From Middle English comen, cumen, from Old English coman, cuman (“to come, go, happen”), from Proto-Germanic *kwemaną (“to come”), from Proto-Indo-European *gʷem-, *gʷém-, *gʷem-ye- (“to come, go, be born”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: come

  • could

    could: From Middle English coude, from Old English cuþ, preterite form of cunnan (“to be able”). The addition of the silent 'l' was likely a misappropriation attempting to normalize with modal verbs will/would and shall/should. However, while the letter l was historically pronounced in the latter two, can never did have an l sound in it.

    Original page in Wiktionary: could

  • now

    now: From Middle English now, nou, nu, from Old English (“now, at present, at this time, immediately, very recently”), from Proto-Germanic *nu (“now”), from Proto-Indo-European *nū (“now”). Cognate with Scots noo (“now”), Saterland Frisian nu (“now”), West Frisian no (“now”), Dutch nu, nou (“now”), German nu, nun (“now”), Swedish nu (“now”), Icelandic (“now”), Latin num (“even now, whether”), Latin nunc (“now”), Albanian ni (“now”), Lithuanian (“now”), Avestan [script?] (nū, “now”), Sanskrit नु (nu, “now”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: now

  • than

    than: From Middle English than, thanne, from Old English þanne, a variant of þonne (“then, since, because”), from Proto-Germanic *þana (“at that, at that time, then”). Cognate with Dutch dan (“than”), German denn (“than”), German dann (“then”). More at then.

    Original page in Wiktionary: than

  • like

    like: From Middle English liken, from Old English līcian (“to please, be sufficient”), from Proto-Germanic *līkōną, *līkāną (“to please”), from Proto-Indo-European *līg- (“image, likeness, similarity”). Cognate with Dutch lijken (“to seem”), German gleichen (“to resemble”), Icelandic líka (“to like”), Norwegian like (“to like”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: like

  • other

    other: From Middle English other, from Old English ōþer (“other, second”), from Proto-Germanic *anþeraz (“other, second”), from Proto-Indo-European *ánteros (“other”). Cognate with Scots uther, ither (“other”), Old Frisian ōther, ("other"; > North Frisian ), Old Saxon ōthar (“other”), Old High German ander (“other”), Old Norse annarr, øðr-, aðr- (“other, second”), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌸𐌰𐍂 (anþar, “other”), Old Prussian anters, antars (“other, second”), Lithuanian antroks (“other”, pronoun), Latvian otrs, otrais (“second”), Russian второй (vtoroy, “second”), Albanian ndërroj (“to change, switch, alternate”), Sanskrit अन्तर (ántara, “different”), Sanskrit अन्य (anyá, “other, different”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: other

  • how

    how: Middle English how, hou, hu, hwu, Old English , from Proto-Germanic *hwō, from the same root as hwæt (“who, what”). Akin to Old Saxon huo (Low German wo), , Dutch hoe, compare German wie (“how”). See who and compare why.

    Original page in Wiktionary: how

  • then

    then: From Middle English then(ne), than(ne), from Old English þonne, þanne, þænne (“then, at that time”), from Proto-Germanic *þan-, *þana- (“at that (time), then”), from Proto-Indo-European *to- (“demonstrative pronoun”). Cognate with Dutch dan (“then”), German dann (“then”), Icelandic þá (“then”). Related to than.

    Original page in Wiktionary: then

  • its

    its: From it +‎ 's.

    Original page in Wiktionary: its

  • our

    our: From Middle English oure, from Old English ūre, ūser (“our”), from Proto-Germanic *unseraz (“of us, our”), from Proto-Indo-European *no-s-ero- (“our”). Cognate with West Frisian ús (“our”), Low German uns (“our”), Dutch onze (“our”), German unser (“our”), Danish vor (“our”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: our

  • two

    two: From Middle English two, twa, from Old English twā (“two”), from Proto-Germanic *twai (“two”), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (“two”). Cognate with Scots twa (“two”); North Frisian tou, tuu (“two”); Saterland Frisian twäin, two (“two”); West Frisian twa (“two”); Dutch twee (“two”); Low German twee, twei (“two”); German zwei, zwo (“two”); Danish to (“two”); Swedish två, tu (“two”); Icelandic tvö (“two”); Latin duō (“two”); Ancient Greek δύο (dúo, “two”); Irish dhá (“two”); Lithuanian (“two”); Russian два (dva, “two”); Albanian dy (“two”); Old Armenian երկու (erku, “two”); Sanskrit द्व (dvá, “two”); Tocharian A/B wu/wi (“two”). See also twain.

    Original page in Wiktionary: two

  • more

    more: From Middle English more, from Old English māra (“more”), from Proto-Germanic *maizô (“more”), from Proto-Indo-European *mē- (“many”). Cognate with Scots mair (“more”), West Frisian mear (“more”), Dutch meer (“more”), Low German mehr (“more”), German mehr (“more”), Danish mere (“more”), Swedish mera (“more”), Icelandic meiri, meira (“more”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: more

  • these

    these: Middle English thes

    Original page in Wiktionary: these

  • want

    want: From Middle English wanten (“to lack”), from Old Norse vanta (“to lack”), from Proto-Germanic *wanatōną (“to be wanting, lack”), from *wanô (“lack, deficiency”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (“empty”). Cognate with Middle High German wan (“not full, empty”), Middle Dutch wan (“empty, poor”), Old English wana (“want, lack, absence, deficiency”), Latin vanus (“empty”). See wan.

    Original page in Wiktionary: want

  • way

    way: From Middle English wei, wai, weighe, from Old English weġ, from Proto-Germanic *wegaz, from Proto-Indo-European *weǵʰ-. Cognate with West Frisian wei, Low German Weg, Dutch weg, German Weg, Danish vej, Swedish väg, Latin vehō, Albanian udhë.

    Original page in Wiktionary: way

  • look

    look: From Middle English loken, lokien, from Old English lōcian (“to see, behold, look, gaze, observe, notice, take heed, belong, pertain, regard with favor”), from Proto-Germanic *lōkōną, *lōgēną (“to look”) (compare West Frisian loaitsje, Middle Dutch loeken), German dialectal lugen (“to look out”)), from Proto-Indo-European *lAg- (“to look, see”) (compare Welsh llygad (“eye”), Tocharian AB läk- (“to see”), Sanskrit लक्षति (lakṣati, “he sees, perceives”)).

    Original page in Wiktionary: look

  • first

    first: From Middle English first, furst, ferst, fyrst, from Old English fyrst, fyrest (“first, foremost, principal, chief, original”), from Proto-Germanic *furistaz (“foremost, first”), superlative of Proto-Germanic *fur, *fura, *furi (“before”), from Proto-Indo-European *per-, *pero- (“forward, beyond, around”), equivalent to fore +‎ -est. Cognate with North Frisian foarste (“first”), Dutch voorste (“foremost, first”), German Fürst (“chief, prince”, literally “first (born)”), Swedish första (“first”), Icelandic fyrstur (“first”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: first

  • also

    also: From Middle English also, alswo, alswa, (also alse, als, as > English as), from Old English ealswā, eallswā (“completely so, additionally, just as, just so, even as, even so, as, as if, so, so as, likewise, also; likewise, in just the same way”), equivalent to all +‎ so. Cognate with Scots alsa, alswa (“also, even so, in the same way, as, as well”), West Frisian alsa (“so, just so, even so, thus”), Old Saxon alsō (“similarly, as if, just as, when”), Dutch alzo (“so, thus”), German also (“so, thus”), Danish altså (“so”), Swedish alltså (“so, therefore, accordingly, thus, then”). Compare also Swedish också (“also, too, as well”) and Albanian aq sa (“as much as”), compound of aq (“as much”) and sa (“how much, so, as”). See all, so, as.

    Original page in Wiktionary: also

  • new

    new: From Middle English newe, from Old English nīwe, nēowe (“new”), from Proto-Germanic *niwjaz (“new, fresh”), from Proto-Indo-European *néwos (“new”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: new

  • because

    because: From Middle English bi cause = bi (“by”) + cause, modelled on Old French par cause

    Original page in Wiktionary: because

  • day

    day: From Middle English day, from Old English dæġ (“day”), from Proto-Germanic *dagaz (“day”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰegʷʰ- (“to burn”). Cognate with Saterland Frisian Dai (“day”), West Frisian dei (“day”), Dutch dag (“day”), Low German Dag (“day”), German Tag (“day”), Swedish and Danish dag (“day”), Icelandic dagur (“day”). Compare Albanian djeg (“to burn”), Lithuanian degti (“to burn”), Tocharian A tsäk-, Russian жечь (žeč’), Sanskrit दाह (dāha, “heat”), दहति (dahati, “to burn”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: day

  • use

    use: From Middle English use, from Old French us, from Latin usus (“use, custom, skill, habit”), from past participle stem of uti (“use”). Replaced native Middle English note (“use”) (See note) from Old English notu, and Middle English nutte (“use”) from Old English nytt.

    Original page in Wiktionary: use

  • no

    no: From Middle English no, noo, na, a reduced form of none, noon, nan (“none, not any”) used before consonants (compare a to an), from Old English nān (“none, not any”), from ne (“not”) + ān (“one”), equivalent to ne (“not”) +‎ a. Compare Old Saxon nigēn (“not any”) (Low German nen), Dutch geen, Old High German nihein (German kein). More at no, one.

    Original page in Wiktionary: no

  • man

    man: From Middle English man, from Old English mann (“human being, person, man”), from Proto-Germanic *mann- (“human being, man”), probably from Proto-Indo-European *man- (“man”) (compare also *men- (“mind”)). Cognate with West Frisian man, Dutch man, German Mann (“man”), Norwegian mann (“man”), Old Swedish maþer (“man”), Swedish man, Russian муж (muž, “male person”), Avestan 𐬨𐬀𐬥𐬱 (manuš), Sanskrit मनु (manu, “human being”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: man

  • find

    find: From Middle English finden, from Old English findan, from Proto-Germanic *finþaną (compare West Frisian fine, Low German finden, Dutch vinden, German finden, Danish finde, Swedish finna), a secondary verb from Proto-Indo-European *pent- (“to go, pass; path bridge”), *pontHo- (compare Old Irish étain (“I find”), áitt (“place”), Latin pōns (“bridge”), Ancient Greek [script?] (póntos, “sea”), Old Armenian հուն (hun, “ford”), Avestan [script?] (pantā) (gen. paþō), Sanskrit [script?] (pánthās, “path”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: find

  • here

    here: From Middle English here, from Old English hēr (“in this place”), from Proto-Germanic *hē₂r, from Proto-Indo-European *ki- (“this”) + adverbial suffix *-r. Cognate with the English pronoun he, German hier, Dutch hier, her, Icelandic hér, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish her, Swedish här.

    Original page in Wiktionary: here

  • thing

    thing: From Middle English, from Old English þing (thing), from Proto-Germanic *þingą; compare West Frisian ding, Low German Ding, Dutch ding, German Ding, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian ting. The word originally meant "assembly", then came to mean a specific issue discussed at such an assembly, and ultimately came to mean most broadly "an object". Compare the Latin rēs, also meaning legal matter. Modern use to refer to a Germanic assembly is likely influenced by cognates (from the same Proto-Germanic root) like Old Norse þing (thing), Swedish ting, and Old High German ding with this meaning.

    Original page in Wiktionary: thing

  • give

    give: From Middle English given, from Old Norse gefa (“to give”), from Proto-Germanic *gebaną (“to give”), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰh₁bʰ- (“to take, hold, have”). Displaced or merged with native Middle English yiven, ȝeven, from Old English ġiefan, from the same Proto-Germanic source (compare the inherited now obsolete English doublet yive). Cognate with Scots gie (“to give”), Danish give (“to give”), Swedish giva, ge (“to give”), Icelandic gefa (“to give”), North Frisian jiw, jiiw, jeewe (“to give”), West Frisian jaan (“to give”), Low German geven (“to give”), Dutch geven (“to give”), German geben (“to give”), Latin habeō (“have, hold”), Old Irish gaibim (“I hold”), Lithuanian gabenti (“to carry, transport”), Polish gabać (“to grab, snatch”), Sanskrit गभस्ति (gabhasti, “hand”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: give

  • many

    many: From Middle English many, mani, moni, from Old English maniġ, moniġ, maneġ (“many”), from Proto-Germanic *managaz (“some, much, many”), from Proto-Indo-European *monogʰo- (“many”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: many

  • well

    well: From Middle English wel, wal, wol, wele, from Old English wel, wæl, well (“well, abundantly, very, very easily, very much, fully, quite, nearly”), from Proto-Germanic *wela, *walō (“well”, literally “as wished, as desired”), from Proto-Indo-European *wel- (“wish, desire”), *wol-. Cognate with Scots wele, weil (“well”), North Frisian wel, weil, wal (“well”), West Frisian wol (“well”), Dutch wel (“well”), Low German wol (“well”), German wol, wohl (“well”), Danish vel (“well”), Swedish väl (“well”), Icelandic vel, val (“well”). Non-Germanic cognate include Albanian vallë (“well, perhaps, wishfully”). Related to will.

    Original page in Wiktionary: well

  • only

    only: Old English ǣnlīċ, from Germanic; corresponding to one + -ly/-like. Cognate with Swedish enlig (“unified”), and obsolete Dutch eenlijk.

    Original page in Wiktionary: only

  • those


  • tell

    tell: From Middle English tellen (“to count, tell”), from Old English tellan (“to count, tell”), from Proto-Germanic *taljaną, *talzijaną (“to count, enumerate”), from Proto-Germanic *talą, *talǭ (“number, counting”), from Proto-Indo-European *dol- (“calculation, fraud”). Cognate with English tally (“to count”), West Frisian telle (“to count”), West Frisian fertelle (“to tell, narrate”), Dutch tellen (“to count”), Low German tellen (“to count”) and förtellen (“to tell, narrate”), Old High German zellen (“to count”) (German zählen), German erzählen (“to tell, recount”), Old Norse telja (“to count, tell”) (Faroese telja). More at tale.

    Original page in Wiktionary: tell

  • very

    very: From Middle English verray, verrai (“true”), from Old French verai (“true”) (Modern French: vrai), from assumed Vulgar Latin *vērācus, alteration of Latin vērāx (“truthful”), from Latin vērus (“true”), from Proto-Indo-European *wēr- (“true, benevolent”). Cognate with Old English wǣr (“true, correct”), Dutch waar (“true”), German wahr (“true”), Icelandic alvöru (“earnest”). Displaced native Middle English sore, sār (“very”) (from Old English sār (“grievous, extreme”) (Compare German: sehr, Dutch: zeer), Middle English wel (“very”) (from Old English wel (“well, very”)), and Middle English swith (“quickly; very”) (from Old English swīþe (“very”). More at warlock.

    Original page in Wiktionary: very

  • even

    even: From Middle English, from Old English efen, efn, emn (“even, equal, like, level, just, impartial, true”), from Proto-Germanic *ebnaz (“flat, level, even; equal, straight”), from Proto-Indo-European *(h₁)emno- (“equal, straight; flat, level, even”). Cognate with West Frisian even (“even”), Low German even (“even”), Dutch even (“even, equal, same”), effen, German eben (“even, flat, level”), Danish jævn (“even, flat, smooth”), Swedish jämn (“even, level, smooth”), Icelandic jafn, jamn (“even, equal”), Old Cornish eun (“equal, right”) (attested in Vocabularium Cornicum eun-hinsic (“iustus, i. e., just”)), Old Breton eun (“equal, right”) (attested in Eutychius Glossary eunt (“aequus, i. e., equal”)), Middle Breton effn, Breton eeun, Sanskrit अस्नस् (amnás, “(adverb) just, just now; at once”).

    Original page in Wiktionary: even

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